Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences
Published May 29, 2019 | 17:01 EDT (Brief from the Royal Society)
Hummingbird social groups share common signatures in both song parameters and visual display features. The signatures include sequence syntax, proportions of song and display elements, and fine-scale parameters of elements, and are not associated with genetic differences between groups.

Canadian co-author: Daniel Mennill, University of Windsor –